The Science Room (also called the Science Lab by Rimmer in "Bodyswap" and the Scanning Room by the Cat in "D.N.A.") was a central chamber aboard Red Dwarf from which the ship could be controlled from, much like the Drive Room used in Series I and II.
From Series XI, the gang use a newer Science Room towards the front of the ship.
Series III - Series VEdit
The Science Room was similar in some respects to the earlier, mostly grey Drive Room, although it was less cramped, brighter and more colorful, mostly colored in cream. Unlike the Drive Room, the Science Room did not contain a vending machine.
Unlike the Drive Room, which had consoles and server towers and wiring everywhere, the Science Room appeared more ordered, with all the consoles were placed around the central plinth or column in the room. Holly could appear on the main monitor of the central column. The monitors and consoles seem to be more technologically advanced than those in the Drive Room.
Around the outsides of the room were placed dozens of scientific instruments (most of them never actually used) and chemicals in jars.
Whereas the Drive Room contained the navicomp, the Science Room contained things such as the ship's internal scanners (RD: Bodyswap), external scanners (RD: White Hole) and scientific devices such as the Mind Patch (RD: Holoship) and the Triplicator (RD: Demons & Angels).
To be completed
The original Science Room would not be seen again after Series V. In later series, when they've finally got Red Dwarf back after losing it for a few series, the Boys from the Dwarf go back to using various other Drive Rooms.
In Series XI, the crew begin to use a new Science Room instead of the Drive Room used in Series X. The new Science Room is presumably also close to the new sleeping quarters at the front of the ship, since it appears in close proximity.
The second Science Room is blue-tinged and high-tech, with banks of glowing monitors. Although referred to as a Science Room, it is multi-purpose, and can serve as a Drive Room, Science Room and Medi-Bay - for medical purposes and surgery - all in one.